Cardiology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology.

Cardiac Conditions and Cardiac Sarcoidosis

Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare disease in which clusters of white blood cells, called granulomas, form in the tissue of the heart. Any part of the heart can be affected, though these cell clusters most often form in the heart muscle where they can interfere with the heart’s electrical system and cause irregular heartbeats (Arrhythmias). Cardiac sarcoidosis can also result in heart failure.

Cardiac Nursing and Healthcare

Cardiac nurses are often specialized advanced practice registered nurses who work alongside cardiologists and other healthcare providers to provide comprehensive cardiovascular care for patients with acute and chronic heart maladies. Advanced practice registered nurses sub-specializing in cardiology practice under primary specializations as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, often holding multiple specialty certifications specific to patient population or other sub-specializations such as acute care.

Diastolic Dysfunction

Diastolic dysfunction refers to when the diastole part of this action is abnormal. The ventricles do not properly relax and become stiff meaning they cannot fill with blood properly. This causes blood to “dam up” in other parts of the body.

Pressure in the ventricles then increases as blood from the next heartbeat tries to enter. This leads to extra pressure and fluid building up in the vessels of the lungs (referred to as pulmonary congestion) or in the vessels that lead back to the heart (referred to as systemic congestion).

Clinical Cases in Cardiology

Case Studies in Cardiovascular Medicine, should be a specific medical case, broadcasting the background of the patient. They should discuss investigations undertaken in order to determine a diagnosis or differentiate between possible diagnoses, and should indicate type of treatment the patient underwent as result. In one portion we can determine that Case Study is a beneficial and explanatory part of every physician’s medical education.

  • Case Reports on Cardiogeriatrics
  • Case Reports on Pediatric cardiology
  • Case Reports on Cardiothoracic Surgery
  • Case Reports on Adult Cardiology
  • Case Reports on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases

Acute Coronary Syndromes

Acute coronary syndrome is a term used to describe a range of conditions associated with sudden, reduced blood flow to the heart. This condition is treatable if diagnosed quickly. Treatment may include medication, such as blood thinners, clot busters or beta blockers. Surgery may be required. Acute coronary syndromes are categorized into unstable angina, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarctions and ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Anticoagulation Management

The anticoagulation management service (AMS) is sometimes referred to as the “coumadin clinic.” AMS is staffed by registered nurses and pharmacists, who are certified in anticoagulation therapy. These clinicians monitor and manage the medications your medical provider has prescribed to prevent blood clots. Warfarin (Coumadin) therapy is monitored by using the latest technology. Anticoagulation clinicians will obtain a small blood sample from your finger tip to measure the international normalized ratio (INR). The test results are immediate, thus our clinicians are able to review the results, discuss any outside factors affecting the results and make dosage adjustments before you leave the clinic.

Arrhythmias and Clinical EP

An Arrhythmia is a problem with the rate or rhythm of your heartbeat. It means that your heart beats too quickly, too slowly, or with an irregular pattern. When the heart beats faster than normal, it is called tachycardia. When the heart beats too slowly, it is called bradycardia. The most common type of arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation, which causes an irregular and fast heartbeat.

Types of Arrhythmias

  • Atrial Fibrillation
  • Bradycardia
  • Conduction Disorders
  • Premature contraction
  • Tachycardia
  • Ventricular Fibrillation

Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Cardiology

Congenital heart disease (congenital heart defect) is one or more abnormalities in your heart’s structure that you’re born with. This most common of birth defects can alter the way blood flows through your heart.

Pediatric cardiology is concerned with diseases of the heart in the growing and developing individual. As well as expertise in heart disease, pediatric cardiologists also need a thorough grounding in general pediatrics, in order to provide all-round patient care. Pediatric cardiologists broadly treat congenital heart disease (present at birth), arrhythmias.

Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Disease

When you have diabetes, you’re more at risk of heart disease. This is also called cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary disease, and can lead to heart attacks and strokes. To reduce damage to your blood vessels by looking blood sugar levels, blood pressure and cholesterol (blood fats). Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is a combination of metabolic dysfunctions mainly characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and central adiposity.

Dyslipidemia Geriatric Cardiology

Dyslipidemia is defined as having blood lipid levels that are too high or low. Blood lipids are fatty substances, such as triglycerides and cholesterol. Geriatric cardiology or Cardiogeriatrics is the branch of cardiology that deals with the cardiovascular disorders in elderly people. The field of geriatric cardiology reflects the evolving medical approaches tailored to address the needs of the growing population of oldest old with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Cardiac disorders such as coronary heart disease (including myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, arrhythmias (as atrial fibrillation) and others are common and are a major cause of mortality in elderly people. Vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and peripheral arterial disease cause significant morbidity and mortality in aged people

Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathies

Cardiomyopathy refers to diseases of the heart muscle. In cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle becomes enlarged, thick, or rigid. In rare cases, the muscle tissue in the heart is replaced with scar tissue. As cardiomyopathy worsens, the heart becomes weaker. It’s less able to pump blood through the body and maintain a normal electrical rhythm. This can lead to heart failure or irregular heartbeats called Arrhythmia.

The types of cardiomyopathy are:

  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
  • Unclassified cardiomyopathy

Cardiac Electrophysiology

Cardiac electrophysiology (EP) is the study of the electrical system of the heart. The term is usually used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical stimulation.

There are two parts to the EP study:

Recording the heart’s electrical signals to assess the electrical function

Pacing the heart to bring on certain abnormal rhythms for observation under controlled conditions.

Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels. It can also be associated with damage to arteries in organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys and eyes.

Types of CVD

  • Coronary heart disease
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Arrhythmia
  • Heart valve problems
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Aortic disease

Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

Ischemic heart disease, also referred to as coronary heart disease, is present when a patient has one or more symptoms, signs, or complications from an inadequate supply of blood to the myocardium. This is most commonly due to obstruction of the epicardial coronary arteries due to atherosclerosis

Hypertensive Heart Disease

Hypertensive heart disease refers to heartconditions caused by high blood pressure. The heartworking under increased pressure causes some different heart disorders. Hypertensive heart disease includes heart failure, thickening of theheart muscle, coronary artery disease, and other conditions.

Pericardial Disease

Pericardial disease affects the pericardium, which is the flexible two-layered sac that envelops the heart.

Disorder of the pericardium include

  • Pericardial effusion
  • Constrictive pericarditis
  • Fibrosis of the pericardium

Pericardial disease affects the pericardium, which is the flexible two-layered sac that envelops the heart.

Disorders of the Pericardium

  • Pericardial effusion
  • Constrictive pericarditis
  • Fibrosis of the pericardium